Author Topic: Balochi Literature  (Read 6096 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline °ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ●•٠

  • Moderator
  • ****
  • Posts: 532
  • Karma: 15
  • "The course of true love never did run smooth"
Balochi Literature
« on: January 09, 2009, 12:16:21 PM »
The first recorded works of folk literature-epics, romantic ballads, lyrical and heroic poems depicting the legendary history and genealogy of the Balochi tribesdates back to the sixteenth century. The extant poems include: 'Hani and Shah Murad,' 'Shahdad and Mahnaz,' 'Lallah and Granaz,' 'Bebarg and Granaz,' 'Mast and Sammo.' They reflect the social structure of the traditional *Balochi society, its code of honour, and military skills. The more noteworthy poets of the early period are: Mir Chakar Khan Rind (early sixteenth century), Mir Biwragh Puzh Rind, Gwahram Lashari, Mir Shahdad, Shah Murad Kaheri and Baloch Gargej.

Some rulers of Kalat, such as Abdullah Khan (r. 1715-30) and Khan Khudad Khan (r. 1875-93), patronised literature and the arts. Jam Durrak Dombki, who introduced the "ghazal into Balochi poetry, worked at the court of Mir Nasir Khan (1750-95). Other notables in eighteenth to nineteenth century Balochi poetry were Mullah Fazil Rind, Mullah Ismail, Izzat Panjguri, Jihand Rind, Muhammad Khan Gishkori, ur Muhammad Bampushti, Usman Kalamati, Mitha Khan and Haidar Balachani.
In the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century small circles of poets existed at the Khans' courts and tribal leaders' camps. The wellknown poets of those days include Huzur Baksh Jatoi, Mast Tawakkali, Jawansal Bugti, Rahim Ali Shaheja, Ismail Pullabadi, and Mullah Ismail Sarbazi.

Balochi prose didn't appear until the beginning of the twentieth century. It consisted mainly of textbooks, commentaries on religious texts, translations from other languages and short stories published in periodical . Balochi literature made great progress on the eve of and following, Pakistan's liberation from the colonial yoke, when the poetry expressed strong patriotic sentiments related to the struggle for independence, and for the development of the Balochi language and folk traditions. A number of cultural and literary societies sprang up, such as Anjuman-i-Lslah-i-Balochan (the Society for Balochi Education) (1946), Balochistan Progressive Writers' Association (1949), Balochi Sarchmay (1951) and *Balochi Academy (1961). A number of Balochi periodicals were established: a literary monthly Uman. (1950), the journals Naukin daur (New Times), Ulus (1960), Saugat (Good News); Zamana Balochi (1968), San), Balochi, and newspaper Jad-o-Jihad (Struggle).

Among the poets, particularly noteworthy are Azad Jamaldini (b. 1918), Sayid Zahur Muhammad Hashmi (1926-85), and Mir Gul Khan Nasir (1914-83). These were innovative poets, who strove to introduce new elements into the imagery and subject matter of Balochi poetry: Muhammad Husain Unqa (b. 1924), Mumin Bazdar (b. 1930), and Ata Shad (b. 1939). Considerable contributions to Balochi poetry have also been made by Muhammad Ishaq Shamim (b. 1923), Qazi Abdurrahim Sabir (b. 1919), Abdul Hakim Haqqu (b. 1912), Murad Sahar (b. 1929), Malik Muhammad Taqi (b. 1921), Ahmad Jigar (b. 1921), and Dost Muhamad Bekas (b. 1916).

Prominent prose writers include Muhammad Hu ain Unqa, Azad Jamaldini, Mali Muhammad Panah (b. 1913), Muhammad Beg Baloch (b. 1936), and Muhammad Sadiq Azad (b. 1941).

Periodicals occasionally carried translations from foreign authors, including Leo Tolstoy, Chekhov, Gorky, and some Urdu writers such as Krishan Chandar. Despite the achievements of post-partition Balochi literature, its progress has been hampered by the low education level of the Balochi population, lack of stability in the literary journals and few publishing houses.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Longworth Dames, 'Popular Poetry of the Baloches', Vol. I-II, London, 1907; Hetu Ram, 'Baloehi Nama', Lahore, 1881; 1.1. Zarubin, 'Balochi Tales', Vol. I, Leningrad, 1932, Vol. 2, Moscow-Leningrad, 1949 (in Russian); Niamatullah Gichky, 'Baloehi Language and its Literature', Newsletter of Balochistan Studies, No.3, Naples, 1986; Abdullah Ian Jamaldini, 'Balochi Adab men Fikri Irtiqa' (Evolution of Philosophy in Balochi Literature), lrtiqa, Karachi, February 1989.
°ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ ℳℐℛ ßÁĹŐČℋ●•٠·˙

Offline Hassan Janan Badini

  • Global Moderator
  • *****
  • Posts: 71
  • Karma: 14
Re: Balochi Literature
« Reply #1 on: September 03, 2010, 03:56:28 AM »
sherain johd e kotag tao. bale tae mazmoon e toka radi maan ant. tao jam durak balochi 1 gazl e shair gushatg. k gazal a introduce kotag. a hawala tao cha kea kitab a zoortag?
2mi hazoor baksh jatoe kojam khan e shair botag o kojam tribal chaif a gun nazdeki dashtag? a hawala tao cha kojam kitab a zortag?
3mi aish k balochi prose e gpa kany guda prose cha maktaba e durkhani a shoro botag o ishi wahd o pass 1883 int k a idara 1 balochi kitab chap kangy idara botg. o tao pada wati a mazmoon e sara char o tapass bikan.o pada nibishta bikany. bale koshish bikan k pora balochi labzank e sra nibishta kangay badala yak topic e bizor. guda tho sheri e sara likith knay;
mani gpan dila mayar e. man amy kami an marith o gun tao share kot.
minat var an


Offline °ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ●•٠

  • Moderator
  • ****
  • Posts: 532
  • Karma: 15
  • "The course of true love never did run smooth"
Re: Balochi Literature
« Reply #2 on: September 04, 2010, 09:37:47 PM »
sherain johd e kotag tao. bale tae mazmoon e toka radi maan ant. tao jam durak balochi 1 gazl e shair gushatg. k gazal a introduce kotag. a hawala tao cha kea kitab a zoortag?
2mi hazoor baksh jatoe kojam khan e shair botag o kojam tribal chaif a gun nazdeki dashtag? a hawala tao cha kojam kitab a zortag?
3mi aish k balochi prose e gpa kany guda prose cha maktaba e durkhani a shoro botag o ishi wahd o pass 1883 int k a idara 1 balochi kitab chap kangy idara botg. o tao pada wati a mazmoon e sara char o tapass bikan.o pada nibishta bikany. bale koshish bikan k pora balochi labzank e sra nibishta kangay badala yak topic e bizor. guda tho sheri e sara likith knay;
mani gpan dila mayar e. man amy kami an marith o gun tao share kot.
minat var an


 salam-o-drout  o  [pullen_salaam]


mani braat man gpan dila nayaran. mani wasta he fakr gapen k tahi waden zant kare braate mara soj o sar bikant man dila nayaran bailke angan wash ban ..........


 baloch-raaj-e-heyr-loutuk
Mir Ashfaq Mir
°ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ ℳℐℛ ßÁĹŐČℋ●•٠·˙

Offline °ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ●•٠

  • Moderator
  • ****
  • Posts: 532
  • Karma: 15
  • "The course of true love never did run smooth"
Re: Balochi Literature
« Reply #3 on: September 07, 2010, 01:08:56 PM »
Definations

People may perceive a difference between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" serve to distinguish between individual works. Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of a poor standard of grammar and syntax, of an unbelievable or disjointed story-line, or of inconsistent or unconvincing characters. Genre fiction (for example: romance, crime, or science fiction) may also become excluded from consideration as "literature."

History

One of the earliest known literary works is the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem dated around 2100 B.C., which deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for eternal life. Different historical periods have emphasized various characteristics of literature. Early works often had an overt or covert religious or didactic purpose. Moralizing or prescriptive literature stems from such sources. The exotic nature of romance flourished from the Middle Ages onwards, whereas the Age of Reason manufactured nationalistic epics and philosophical tracts. Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real. The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. Literature in 21st century enormously visage through out history.

Poetry.

A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme. One cannot readily characterize poetry precisely. Typically though, poetry as a form of literature makes some significant use of the formal properties of the words it uses – the properties of the written or spoken form of the words, independent of their meaning. Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.

Poetry perhaps pre-dates other forms of literature: early known examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form.

Some poetry uses specific forms: the haiku, the limerick, or the sonnet, for example. A traditional haiku written in Japanese must have something to do with nature, contain seventeen onji (syllables), distributed over three lines in groups of five, seven, and five, and should also have a kigo, a specific word indicating a season. A limerick has five lines, with a rhyme scheme of AABBA, and line lengths of 3,3,2,2,3 stressed syllables. It traditionally has a less reverent attitude towards nature. Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse"

Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German poetry can go either way. Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters. Some languages prefer longer lines; some shorter ones. Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words. Other structural conventions come about as the result of historical accidents, where many speakers of a language associate good poetry with a verse form preferred by a particular skilled or popular poet.

Works for theatre (see below) traditionally took verse form. This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic.

In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media.

Prose.

Prose consists of writing that does not adhere to any particular formal structures (other than simple grammar); "non-poetic" writing, perhaps. The term sometimes appears pejoratively, but prosaic writing simply says something without necessarily trying to say it in a beautiful way, or using beautiful words. Prose writing can of course take beautiful form; but less by virtue of the formal features of words (rhymes, alliteration, metre) but rather by style, placement, or inclusion of graphics. But one need not mark the distinction precisely, and perhaps cannot do so. One area of overlap is "prose poetry", which attempts to convey using only prose, the aesthetic richness typical of poetry.

Essays.

An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.

'Essay' in English derives from the French 'essai,' meaning 'attempt.' Thus one can find open-ended, provocative and/or inconclusive essays. The term "essays" first applied to the self-reflective musings of Michel de Montaigne--even today he has a reputation as the father of this literary form.

Genres related to the essay may include:

    * the memoir, telling the story of an author's life from the author's personal point of view
    *  the epistle: usually a formal, didactic, or elegant letter.


Fiction.

Narrative fiction (narrative prose) generally favors prose for the writing of novels, short stories, graphic novels, and the like. Singular examples of these exist throughout history, but they did not develop into systematic and discrete literary forms until relatively recent centuries. Length often serves to categorize works of prose fiction. Although limits remain somewhat arbitrary, modern publishing conventions dictate the following:

    * A minisaga is a short story of exactly 50 words.
    * Flash fiction is generally defined as a piece of prose under a thousand words.
    * A short story is prose of between 1000 and 20,000 words (but typically more than 5000 words), which may or may not have a narrative arc.
    * A story containing between 20,000 and 50,000 words falls into the novella category. Although this definition is very fluid, with works up to 70,000 words or more being included as novelle.
    *  A work of fiction containing more than 50,000 words generally falls into the realm of the novel.


A novel consists simply of a long story written in prose, yet the form developed comparatively recently. Icelandic prose sagas dating from about the 11th century bridge the gap between traditional national verse epics and the modern psychological novel. In mainland Europe, the Spaniard Cervantes wrote perhaps the first influential novel: Don Quixote, the first part of which was published in 1605 and the second in 1615. Earlier collections of tales, such as the One Thousand and One Nights, Giovanni Bocaccio's Decameron and Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, have comparable forms and would classify as novels if written today. Other works written in classical Asian and Arabic literature resemble even more strongly the novel as we now think of it—for example, works such as the Japanese Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki, the Arabic Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, the Arabic Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, and the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong.

Early novels in Europe did not, at the time, count as significant literature, perhaps because "mere" prose writing seemed easy and unimportant. It has become clear, however, that prose writing can provide aesthetic pleasure without adhering to poetic forms. Additionally, the freedom authors gain in not having to concern themselves with verse structure translates often into a more complex plot or into one richer in precise detail than one typically finds even in narrative poetry. This freedom also allows an author to experiment with many different literary and presentation styles—including poetry—in the scope of a single novel.

Literary techniques.

A literary technique or literary device can be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. Literary technique is distinguished from literary genre as military tactics are from military strategy. Thus, though David Copperfield employs satire at certain moments, it belongs to the genre of comic novel, not that of satire. By contrast, Bleak House employs satire so consistently as to belong to the genre of satirical novel. In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson, which by using the epistolary technique strengthened the tradition of the epistolary novel, a genre which had been practiced for some time already but without the same acclaim.

Literary criticism.

Literary criticism implies a critique and evaluation of a piece of literature and in some cases is used to improve a work in progress or classical piece. There are many types of literary criticism and each can be used to critique a piece in a different way or critique a different aspect of a piece.
°ღ•ℳℐℛ ÁŚℋŦÁQ ℳℐℛ ßÁĹŐČℋ●•٠·˙

Offline Sorouz

  • Semi Seniour Baask
  • ***
  • Posts: 119
  • Karma: 9
  • Shap pa estaal wash ant, o gayaabaan pa....Baloch.
Re: Balochi Literature
« Reply #4 on: September 09, 2010, 02:31:46 PM »
 
   salam-o-drout
                   maradaaren_waajah!

          Baaz sharren gechyn e shoma dargytkag o sheng kotag,shomy johd sata karzit o shomy gechynkaari ham jwaan ent.
        Omyt daran dymter a ham hamy wadyn graanbahahen nebeshtaank pa wati wanoukan shaat kanet!

              baloch-raaj-e-tepaaki-loutouk